Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of Rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized children less than 5 years in South Rajasthan.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: Bal-Chikitsalaya, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan.
Methods: Hospitalized children less than 5 years admitted for acute diarrhea were examined and standardized proforma was used to collect the demographic and clinical profile of the children. Severity of the illness was classified as per Vesikari scoring system and the dehydration was treated as per WHO protocol. Stool samples were collected and tested for gross appearance, routine microscopy, ph, reducing sugar and Rotaviral antigen by a commercial enzyme Immunoassay kit (SD BIOLINE KIT).
Results: Out of 300 children, 94(31.33%) were positive for Rotavirus. The prevalence of Rotaviral diarrhea in children was as follows: <6 months-14.8%, 6-12 months- 45.7%, 12-24 months- 38.3% and >24 months- 0.01%. Rotaviral diarrhea was more common during Winter and Spring months (September to April) 91.4%, with highest prevalence in the months of November (52%), December (68%) and January (56%). Rotavirus negative diarrhea had high prevalence (62.6%) during summer and monsoon months (March-August). Out of 94 rotavirus positive children, 6 cases (6.38%) had no dehydration, 55(58.51%) had some dehydration and 33 (35.10%) had severe dehydration. Among the Rotavirus positive children, vomiting was present in 70 (74.46%) children and fever in 52 (55.31%) children.
Conclusions: The prevalence of Rotaviral diarrhea in children less than 5 years in southern Rajasthan is high and it is more common during Winter and Spring seasons of the year.
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