Role of contaminated water for stillbirths in pregnant womens



  • Prajit Kumar Acharya


  • Nivedita Gupta




Untreated infection may cause stillbirth by several mechanisms, including direct fetal infection, placental damage and severe maternal illness. Many bacteria, viruses, and protozoa have been associated with stillbirth. Every country has to develop and implement a plan to improve maternal and neonatal health that includes a reduction in stillbirths, and to count stillbirths in their vital statistics and other health outcome surveillance systems. We also ask for increased investment in stillbirth-related research, and especially research aimed at identifying and addressing barriers to the aversion of stillbirths within the maternal and neonatal health systems of low-income and middle-income countries. Screening, prevention and treatment of maternal infections are important to reduce stillbirth risk.


Download data is not yet available.


Stanton C, Lawn JE, Rahman H, Wilczynska-Ketende K, Hill K. Stillbirth rates: delivering estimates in 190 countries. Lancet 2006; 367: 1487–94.

Lawn J, Shibuya K, Stein C. No cry at birth: global estimates of intrapartum stillbirths and intrapartum-related neonatal deaths 2005. Bull World Health Organ 2005; 83: 409–17.

McClure EM, Phiri M, Goldenberg RL. Stillbirth in developing countries: a review of the literature. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006; 94: 82–90.

Campylobacteriosis, Acute Communicable Disease Control Manual (B-73) Rev. Oct.(2011)1-3

Gribble, M. J., Salit, I. E., Isaac-Renton, J., Chow, A. W. Campylobacter infections in pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 140 (1981) 423–426.

M. Kist, K. -M. Keller, W. Niebling, W. Kilching,. Campylobacter coli septicaemia associated with septic abortion. Infection. 12(2) (1984) 88-90.

Lubchenko, L. O., Hansman, C., Dressler, M., Boyd, E. Intrauterine growth as estimated from liveborn birth-weight data at 24 to 42 weeks of gestation. Pediatrics 32 (1963) 793–800.

Norbert Hirschhorn, A. K. M. Allauddin Chowdhury, John Lindenbaum, Cholera In Pregnant Women. The Lancet. 293(7608) (1969) 1230 – 1232.

Kumar A., Beniwal M., Kar P., Sharma JB, Murthy NS. Hepatitis E in Pregnancy. Int. J. GynecolObst. 85 (2004) 240 – 244.

Ahmed RE, Karsany MS, Adam I. Brief Report: Acute Viral Hepatitis and Poor Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Sudanese women. J. Med. Viral. 80 (2008) 1747 – 1748.

Singh S., Mohanty A., Joshi YK., Deka D., Mohanty S., Panda S. K.. Mother to Child transmission of hepatitis E virus infection. Indian J. Pediat. 70 (2003) 37 – 39.

Sookolan S. Liver Disease during pregnancy: acute viral hepatitis. Ann Hepatol. 5 (2007) 231 – 236.

A. Beck, P. K. O’Brien, AND V. F. Mackenzie. Case of stillbirth due to infection withListeria monocytogenes. J. clin. Path. 19 (1966), 567 – 569.

Ahmad SA, Sayed SU, Barua S, Khan MH, Jalil A, Hadi SA, Talukder HK,.. Arsenic in drinking water and pregnancy outcomes. Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (6) (2001), 629-631.

Mazumder S. Chronic arsenic toxicity & human health. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 128 (2008) 436 – 447.

Goldenberg RL, Thompson C. The infectious origins of stillbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189(3):861–73.

Ornoy A, Tenenbaum A. Pregnancy outcome following infections by coxsackie, echo, measles, mumps, hepatitis, polio and encephalitis viruses. Reprod Toxicol. 2006; 21:446–57.

Information and Statistics Division NHS Scotland. Scottish perinatal and infant mortality report 2000. Edinburgh: ISD Scotland Publications, 2001.

Smith GCS, Wood AM, Pell JP, White IR, Crossley JA, Dobbie R.Second-trimester maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and the subsequent risk of sudden infant death syndrome. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 978–86.

Yakoob MY, Lawn JE, Darmstadt GL, Bhutta ZA. Stillbirths: epidemiology, evidence and priorities for action. Semin Perinatol 2010; 34: 387–94.

Barros FC, Bhutta ZA, Batra M, Hansen TN, Victora CG, Rubens CE, and the GAPPS Review Group. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (3 of 7): evidence for eff ectiveness of interventions. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2010;10 (suppl 1): S3.

Fleming K. Confi dential enquiry into maternal and child health. Stillbirth, neonatal and post neonatal mortality, 2000–2002, England, Wales and Northern Ireland. London: CEMACH, 2004.

Fretts RC, Usher RH. Causes of fetal death in women of advanced maternal age. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89: 40–45.

Korteweg FJ, Gordijn SJ, Timmer A, et al. The Tulip classification of perinatal mortality: introduction and multidisciplinary inter-rater agreement. BJOG 2006; 113: 393–401.

Jokhio AH, Winter HR, Cheng KK. An intervention involving traditional birth attendants and perinatal and maternal mortality in Pakistan. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 2091–99.



How to Cite

Acharya, P. K., & Gupta, N. (2015). . International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research, 6(9), 635-642.


Vol. 6 No. 9 (2015): Sep


Review Article

Dr. Jun Ren is a dedicated and experienced registered dietitian and nutritionist who is committed to helping people achieve their health goals through personalized nutrition plans. With a passion for promoting healthy eating habits and preventing chronic diseases, Dr. Ren has been able to assist numerous clients in improving their overall quality of life.

Leave a Comment